糖尿病の症状 Symptoms of Diabetes


























Symptoms of Diabetes

The diagnostic criteria for diabetes are based on blood glucose levels, which can be measured through different tests such as fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The diagnostic criteria vary slightly based on the test used.


The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends the following diagnostic criteria:

  1. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test: A fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher on two separate occasions is diagnostic of diabetes.
  2. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): A blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher 2 hours after drinking a glucose-rich beverage is diagnostic of diabetes.
  3. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test: A HbA1c level of 6.5% or higher on two separate occasions is diagnostic of diabetes. HbA1c reflects the average blood glucose level over the past 2-3 months.

It's important to note that diabetes can be diagnosed in the absence of symptoms, and that diagnosis should be confirmed by repeat testing on a different day unless there are unequivocal symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis.

Additionally, diagnosis should take into account the patient's clinical circumstances, such as the presence of risk factors for diabetes and the possibility of pre-existing conditions that may affect the test.


Prediabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. Prediabetes is an intermediate stage between normal glucose metabolism and diabetes.


The American Diabetes Association (ADA) defines prediabetes as:

  1. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels between 100 and 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L)
  2. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels between 5.7% and 6.4%
  3. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2-hour plasma glucose levels between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L)

Having prediabetes increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other complications.

However, the progression from prediabetes to diabetes is not inevitable, and lifestyle changes such as healthy eating, regular physical activity, and weight loss can significantly reduce the risk of developing diabetes.

People with prediabetes should also have regular check-ups with their healthcare provider to monitor their blood glucose levels and assess their risk of developing diabetes.


The common diabetic complications include: 

  1. Cardiovascular complications: High blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of developing heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease.
  2. Neuropathy: High blood sugar levels can damage nerves, leading to a range of complications such as peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and cranial neuropathy.
  3. Nephropathy: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys, leading to a condition called diabetic nephropathy, which can eventually lead to kidney failure.
  4. Retinopathy: High blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels in the retina, leading to a condition called diabetic retinopathy, which can eventually lead to blindness.
  5. Foot complications: High blood sugar levels can cause nerve damage and poor circulation, increasing the risk of developing foot ulcers, infections, and eventually leading to amputation.
  6. Skin complications: High blood sugar levels can cause skin problems such as dry skin, bacterial infections, and fungal infections.
  7. Dental complications: High blood sugar levels can lead to gum disease and dental decay.


The risk of developing diabetic complications can be reduced by managing blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels through a combination of healthy lifestyle habits, medication, and regular medical check-ups.


It's important for people with diabetes to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop an individualized plan for managing their diabetes and preventing or managing diabetic complications.